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Sementara itu, salah satu warga bernama Heri Widodo mengapresiasi acara nonton bareng tersebut. Menurutnya, ini penting agar masyarakat tahu bahwa Pancasila merupakan dasar negara Indonesia dan tidak boleh diubah dengan ideologi apapun.

ID Nantikan! I measured the heights of the five tallest trees in each plot with a clinometer. I divided each plot into five 50 m transects spaced 5 m apart 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 m and randomly chose one transect from the three interior ones 5, 10, or 15 m to measure understory and canopy cover percentages.

I applied the line intercept method to calculate the percentage of segments intercepted by the vegetation in the understory and a concave spherical crown densiometer for each 10 m of the transect, avoiding the borders, for calculating the amount of canopy cover.

In each plot, the slope of the terrain was also calculated with a clinometer at a mean distance of 12 m. Data Analysis Mean relative abundance of species was estimated from 3 years of data as the number of monthly individuals captured per mist netting effort for total, season, strata, and sex.

The months of July through December were not included in this analysis. For the seasonal analysis, seasons were defined as the dry season, from January to April; the early rainy season, from May to August; and the late rainy season, from September to December.

A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate differences in this index over years, across seasons, and between strata and forests for the most abundant nectarivores and frugivores Sall and Lehman A heterogeneity G2 goodness-of-fit test was used to determine differences in strata preference among seasons and differences in sex ratio according to season and strata.

I compared annual rainfall using G2 goodness-of-fit test and mean monthly precipitation and Ta, Tamax, and T7min between sites using a t-test.

Mean annual rainfall values mm for a cloud forest Fortuna m and a lowland site Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias: FCA 35 m from to Mean solid bars and standard deviation of monthly rainfall in millimeters mm for meteorological stations in a cloud forest Fortuna and a lowland site Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias with the elevations expressed in meters in.

Both sites have 4 years records Mean annual rainfall in millimeters mm is shown for cloud forest and lowland site.

Mean monthly ambient temperature, maximal temperature, minimal temperature, and differences between maximal and minimal temperature in a cloud forest Fortuna and a lowland site Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias: FCA.

Temperature values are expressed in degrees Celsius 'C and elevation in meters m. Temperature records are for 4 years Mean monthly and annual rainfall mm values SD recorded in lowlands Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias and cloud forest Fortuna meteorological stations.

Rainfall records are for 4 years Site elevation for lowlands was 35 m. Site elevation for cloud forest was m. Mean monthly and annual ambient temperature Ta , maximal temperature Tmax , and minimal temperature Tamin 'C recorded in the lowlands Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias and in the cloud forest Fortuna Sites elevations are reported in meter m and noted in parentheses.

Although the lowland forest had a lower and higher slope and basal area, respectively, than the cloud forest, these differences were not significant Table Table Parameter Lowland forest Cloud forest Elevation m 95 Slope 0 In the lowland forest the effort was nets-hrs, nets-hrs for the dry season and nets-hrs for the entire rainy season.

In the cloud forest the effort was nets-hrs, for the dry season and nets-hrs for the rainy season. I captured bats belonging to 53 species at both sites, 35 species in the lowland forest and 34 species in the cloud forest Appendix A.

I found differences among bat species in overall forest strata use at both sites Appendix A. Species belonging to the subfamilies Phyllostominae e. I also found a similar trend in preference for the 21 canopy in small e.

The other species used both strata or their low sample size did not allow the detection of differences in the use of strata Appendix A.

There were seasonal differences in the frequency use of strata in only two species of lowland bats, A.

Two lowland understory species, T. In the cloud forest two species had seasonal differences in the use of strata, S. A detailed analysis of seasonal patterns in strata use by bats will be discussed in Chapter 4.

Bat Sex Ratio Only two frugivorous species A. Cloud forest species that showed differences in male:female ratio included a nectarivore H.

For some species there were differences in the sex ratio between the sites Appendix A. For example, C.

The sex ratio was calculated from 3 years mean of seasonal values of species abundance. Discussion This long-term study has demonstrated that bat capture-rates vary with forest type and season in terms of vertical stratification and sex ratio.

Previous studies, addressing the vertical stratification in bats, did not sample in different seasons e. An asterik indicates a significant difference in the G test for the season P -7,' ItlI.

Q I- 25 Gardner et al. With this study, I hope to contribute to the development of a standard sampling protocol for bats, and to understanding of the bat ecology that can be applied to conservation.

Strata Use by Bats The results indicate that lowland bats use strata differentially, whereas the cloud forest bats were mostly use the canopy.

Nevertheless, in both forests the canopy was intensely used by bats, with 33 species captured in the lowland forest canopy and 29 species captured in the cloud forest canopy Appendix A, Chapter 3.

The differences in the spatial distribution of bats may be due to differences in diet, foraging behavior, roost-site selection, or morphology Kalko et al.

Lowland species that gleaned insects e. The only understory cloud forest bat was S. As in the lowlands, large and small cloud forest bats e.

Carollia perspicillata feeds on canopy fruits during the late rainy season on Barro Colorado Island Bonaccorso , Thies Large frugivorous bats in the cloud forest were almost exclusively using the canopy.

The dense understory in the cloud forest can be the main cause of the high canopy captures of large bats. For example, A. A seasonal change in the strata use by bats was found in lowland canopy frugivores: S.

However, in the cloud forest, members of the same genera S. This opposite trend in strata use by pairs of co-generic species suggests contrasting plant phenology in these sites Heithaus et al.

Bat Sex Ratio Several species of bats at the two sites showed a departure from the expected 1 male: 1 female adult sex ratio. In temperate bats, adult sex ratios are frequently male biased in hibernating as well as in non-hibernating species Gaisler , Keen and Hitchkock In the lowland forest, all sex ratios that differed from A.

Previous studies in lowland bats indicate that Phyllostomus hastatus, P. A study in a Costa Rica dry forest found A. For some species, a low sample size due to captures only in the understory may limit the ability to detect a significant departure from the expected sex ratio.

Artibeusjamaicensis differed with forest type in the frequency use of strata. In the cloud forest, five species were female biased and two were male biased.

For example, the nectarivorous H. This proportion of males to females suggests spatial segregation of sexes in Hylonycteris, as has been indicated for Centurio senex Goodwin and Greenhall , Handley , Paradiso This marked difference in the proportion of males to females might not be detected if I had sampled only in the understory, because this bat used both strata equally.

Carollia perspicillata has been reported in lowland Panami and Costa Rica with an adult sex ratio of Fleming , Thies , Stoner , this study , but this species in the cloud forest had a femalebiased sex ratio.

The increase in females in the cloud forest, where this species showed a migratory pattern Chapter 4 , could represent immigration of females from areas outside of my study site, as has been argued by Fleming Artibeusjamaicensis, also with some degree of migratory behavior Chapter 4 , had a male biased sex ratio, which differed from its lowland population.

Furthermore, I captured only six females in reproductive condition of 34 recorded during the 3. A differential distribution of sex ratio with elevation has been demonstrated for temperate insectivore bats, which show few females at high elevation, especially in reproductive condition Cryan et al.

I detected seasonal variation in the sex ratio of two lowland species. For example, although C. In Costa Rican dry forests this species also has a period with more males, but it occurs during the dry season or 28 early rainy season Fleming , Stoner Three cloud forest bats had seasonal changes in sex ratio.

More females of the understory bat S. The identification of differences in the species' response to environmental variation is important for understanding maintenance of biological diversity and for the use of species as indicators of ecosystem "health".

I have demonstrated that within bats, species' ecological response to environmental variability include the differential use of forest strata and changes in their adult sex ratio with season and site.

Although it is clear that bats are sensitive to habitat disturbance, I recommend caution in the interpretation of results from studies examining bat sex ratio or the influence of forest disturbance on bats without considering their strata preferences.

The two components of diversity, species richness and abundance, are strongly related to the concept of species co-existence, and they represent basic measures to describe patterns of species co-existence Tokeshi The identification of patterns and processes is directly related to the spatial and temporal scales of the study in which large scales deal with evolutionary factors, whereas medium to smaller scales deal with ecological factors Wiens , Huston , Tokeshi , Willis and Whittaker An analysis of diversity patterns and processes can be done only through the comparison of appropriate taxonomic e.

A promising, but difficult, approach to describing patterns and processes of biological diversity is to study a speciose and ecologically important taxon with a wide distribution; bats are an ideal taxonomic group with which to take such an approach Kalko New World bats are the most diverse mammals in terms of number of species Wilson , Findley and feeding habits Janzen and Wilson , Kalko in tropical communities.

They play important roles as pollinators, 29 30 seed dispersers, and predators of invertebrates and small vertebrates Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Findley , Kalko and occupy many forest types Humphrey and Bonaccorso , Fleming , Willig and Mares Therefore, the identification of ecological patterns in bat communities and factors influencing their diversity is important for the understanding and conservation of tropical forest ecosystems.

Currently, our knowledge of patterns and processes in bat communities is poor. This is due in part to the lack of standardized, long-term comparative studies, and behavioral and ecological data at the species level Fleming a, Willig , Findley , Kalko , , Stevens and Willig These sampling biases may limit the ability of these studies to detect evolutionary, biogeographic, or ecological patterns.

None of these studies e. Considering the role of the forest canopy in plant and animal ecology is necessary when estimating species diversity and the mechanisms that underlie it Lowman and Nadkarni , DeVries et al.

I examine ecological characteristics of species that correlate with distribution and abundance within and between sites and among seasons.

This long-term study is the first in Panamd to examine the bat diversity outside of the Canal Area in Panami and to sample canopy bats in a mid-elevation Neotropical cloud forest.

Finally, I compare lowland and midelevation sites from Panami, Central America, and South America, and discuss whether patterns previously observed in bat community studies are observed at the two Panamanian bat communities I studied.

The lowland site was Cerro Batipa 8' 20' The site lies in a tropical moist forest life zone Tosi and has a tropical climate with a prolonged dry season McKay , modified from De Martonne The mean annual ambient temperature is The vegetation covers ha of tropical evergreen, semi-deciduous, and drought-deciduous forests Chapter 2, Valdespino and Santamaria , Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg The forest has a gradient in disturbance conditions, from mature closed canopy to highly disturbed open canopy forest patches.

Some forest edges border teak Tectona grandis 32 plantations or mangroves. The forest has a canopy height of 30 m and emergent trees of 40 m, with a closed canopy and relatively open understory Chapter 2.

The vegetation is described in detail in Valdespino and Santamaria The reserve ranges in elevation from to m Diaz , but the study site spans an elevation range of m.

Fortuna has two life zones Tosi , Dfaz , premontane wet forest and lower wet mountain forest. It shows a montane oceanic climate McKay based on De Martonne , with mean annual ambient temperature of The reserve comprises 19, ha of continuous lower mountain rainforest Cavelier , Diaz , and is classified as a tropical ombrophilous cloud forest Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg A detailed description of the vegetation at Fortuna is found in Mayo et al.

Ten sampling stations were established in the lowland forest and seven in the cloud forest. Pairs of mist nets were separated by m.

Nets were set in the canopy using a system of ropes and plastic rings. Nets were usually opened from sunset h to midnight h and checked every min.

Only adult and subadult bats were marked. The first year of the study I used a combination of colored beads on plastic necklaces Medellin et al.

The use of mist nets to study bat or avian ecology has advantages and disadvantages that have discussed in detail by several authors LaVal , Fleming et al.

This permitted high-flying insectivorous bats that are not commonly captured with mist-nets, to be identified and included in analyses Kalko et al.

By combining understory and canopy mist netting with acoustic monitoring it is possible to inventory almost the entire bat community at one site Kalko et al.

Bat Diversity Analysis Diversity parameters were calculated for both sites and compared between habitat lowland forest and cloud forest , height understory and canopy , and time year and season.

The temporal factors comprise the years to and the following seasons: dry January-April , early rainy May-August , and late rainy SeptemberDecember.

The species accumulation curves, which plot the cumulative number of species discovered within a defined area as a function of the effort expended netting nights Colwell and Coddington , Moreno and Halffter , give a preliminary estimate of species abundance.

It is expected that the most abundant species are the first to be captured. Rarefaction analyses were used to compare species richness between forests and between strata Colwell Rarefaction diversity measurements provide control for sampling differences by calculating species richness scaling all collections to the same sample size Hulbert , Heck et al.

Species abundance number of individuals per species distribution was analyzed first as the species abundance frequency distribution, in which the number of species were plotted against the log2 of abundance Preston , Magurran , Hubbell To describe species abundance patterns within communities, I assigned bats to an abundance category based on first captures of adults and subadults.

The abundance categories are super-abundant, abundant, common, uncommon, and rare. Although the position of the cut-off points is arbitrary, this is a simple comparative method, in which it ranked species' abundances and established a proportion of species within an abundance category.

I used Fager's "number of moves per specimen" NMS , which performed best in a recent evaluation Hubal6k , and Shannon-Wiener information index H' , which is the most widely used measure of species diversity Magurran , Hubaldk and therefore facilitates comparisons with other studies, to calculate species diversity.

Fager's number and Shannon-Wiener index have maximum values of diversity around 1. To obtain a measurement of a species' proportional abundance in a sample, I calculated Shannon's evenness index E Magurran The evenness index is constrained between 0 and 1.

Community similarity or beta 0 diversity was calculated with two measures: Sorensen index Ci and Sorensen quantitative index CN.

The former measures only species presence-absence taxonomy and takes no account of the abundance of species, whereas the other measures both species presence-absence and abundance function Magurran 36 Executor named In the und,m!.!

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All the latest content is available, no embargo periods. Apart from obvious foreign touches in the early recensions of the story of Bernaldo de Carpio who figures as Charlemagne's nephew , the tone of the ballads is hostile to the French, and, as is natural, the enmity grows more pronounced with time.

Thus, the balladist emphasises the fact that the faithless wife of Garci-Ferndndez is French ; and, again, when Sancho Garcfa's mother, like- wise French, appears in a rojnancey the singer gives her a blackamoor — an Arab — as a lover.

In considering early Spanish verse it behoves us to denote facts and to be chary in drawing inferences.

It is not to be assumed that similarity of incident necessarily implies direct imitation. His presence in the field may be — almost certainly is — an historic event, common enough in days when a militant bishop loved to head a charge ; and the chronicler may well have seen the exploits which he records.

It by no means follows, and it is extravagant to suppose, that the Spanish juglar merely filches from the Chanson de Roland.

That he had heard the Chanson is not only probable, but likely ; it is not, to say the least, a necessary consequence that he annexed an epi- sode as familiar in Spain as elsewhere.

Nothing, if you probe deep enough, is new, and originality is a vain dream. Nor must it be forgotten that from a very early date there are traces of the reflex action of Castilian upon French literature.

They are not, indeed, many ; but they are authentic beyond carping. Borrowed from the East, the story is trans- mitted to the Greeks, is annexed by the Arabs, and is passed on through them to Spain, whence Adenet le Roi conveys it for presentation to the western world.

More directly and more characteristically Spanish in its origin is the royal epic entitled Ansdts de Carthage. Here, after the manner of your epic poet, chronology is scattered to the winds, and we learn that Charlemagne left in Spain a king who dishonoured the daughter of one of his barons ; hence the invasion by the Arabs, whom the baron lets loose upon his country as avengers.

The basis of the story is purely Spanish, being a some- what clumsy arrangement of the legend of Roderic, Cora, and Count Julian ; the city of Carthage standing, it may be, for the Spanish Cartagena.

Hence it is clear that the mutual literary debt of Spain and France is, at this early stage, unequally divided. Moliere, the two Corneilles, Rotrou, Sorel, Scarron, and Le Sage, to mention but a few eminent names at hazard, readjust the balance in favour of Spain ; and the inexhaustible resources of the Spanish theatre, which supply the arrangements of scores of minor French dramatists, are but a small part of the literature whose details are our present concern.

These primitive pieces are characterised by a vein of popular, unconscious poetry, with scarce a touch of personal artistry ; and the ascrip- tion which refers one or other of them to an individual writer is, for the most part, arbitrary.

Insufficiency of data makes it impossible to identify the oldest literary performance in Spanish Romance. Jews like Judah ben Samuel the Levite, and trovadores like Rambaud de Vaqueiras, arabesque their verses with Spanish tags and refrains ; but these are whimsies.

Experts differ concerning their respective dates ; but the liturgical derivation of the Misterio inclines one to hold it for the elder of the two.

If Lidforss were right in attributing it to the eleventh century, the play would rank among the first in any modern language.

Amador de los Rfos dates it still further back. As these pretensions are excessive, the known facts may be briefly given.

Both conjectures have proved just. Throughout Europe the Christian theatre derives from the Church, and the early plays are but a lay vernacular rendering of models studied in the sanctuary.

Simplified as the liturgy now is, the Mass itself, the services of Palm Sunday and Good Friday, are the unmistakable cUbris of an elabo- rate sacred drama.

If Hartmann be justified in his contention, that the tradi- tional names of the Magi were not in vogue till after the alleg ed discovery of their remains at M ilan in 11 the Spanish Misterio can be, at best, no oldeFthan the end of the twelfth century.

Enough of it remains to show that the Spanish work- man improved upon his models. He elaborates the dramatic action, quickens the dialogue with newer life, and gives his scene an ampler, a more vivid atmos- phere.

Led by the heavenly star, the three Magi first appear separately, then together ; they celebrate the birth of Christ, whom they seek to adore, at the end of their thirteen days' pilgrimage.

There is even a breath of the critical spirit wholly absent from all other early mysteries, which accept the miraculous sign of the star with a simple, unquestion- ing faith.

In our play, the first and third Magi wish to observe it another night, while the second King would fain watch it for three entire nights.

Lastly, the scale of the Misterio is larger than that of any predecessor ; the personages are not huddled upon the scene at once, but appear in appropriate, dramatic order, delivering more elaborate speeches, and express- ing at greater length more individual emotions.

Important and venerable as is the Misterioj its freer treatment of the liturgy, its effectual blending of realism with devotion, and its swiftness of action are so many arguments against its reputed antiquity.

I It is still old if we adopt the conclusion that it was written some twenty years before the Poenta del Cid. The beginning is lost; a page in the middle, containing some fifty lines following upon verse , has gone astray from our copy ; and the end has been retouched by unskilful fingers.

The original composition is thought to date from about the middle third of the twelfth century , some fifty years after the Cid's death at Valencia in Hence the Poem of the Cid stands almost midway between the Chanson de Roland and the Niebelungenlied.

Nevertheless, in its surviving shape it is the result of innumerable retouches which amount to botching. Our gratitude to Per Abbat is dashed with regret for his slapdash methods.

Still, to Per Abbat we owe the preservation of the Cid cantar as we owe to Sdnchez its issue in , more than half a century before any French chanson de geste was printed.

The Spanish epic. Unquestionably the Cid lived in the flesh : whether or not his alleged achievements occurred is another matter.

Irony has incidentally marked him for its own. Yet two points must be kept in mind": the facts which discredit him are reported by hostile Arab his- torians ; and, again, the Cid is entitled to be judged by the standard of his country and his time.

But there is a fixed intent to place the Spaniard first. The Cid is pictured as more Jiuman than Roland: he releases his prisoners without j ransom ; he gives them money so that they may reach their homes.

The machinery in both cases is very similar. Roland and Ruy Diaz are absolved and exhorted to the same effect, and the resemblance of the epithet curunez applied to the French bishop is too close to the coronado of the Spaniard to be accidental.

But allowing for the fact that the Spanish juglar borrows his framework, his per- formance is great by virtue of its simplicity, its strength, its spirit and fire.

Whether he deals with the hungry loyalty of the Cid in exile, or his reception into favour by an ingrate king ; whether he celebrates the overthrow!

There is an unity of conception and of language which forbids our accepting the Poema as the work of several hands ; and the division of the poem into separate cantares is managed with a discretion which argues a single artistic intelligence.

The first part closes with the marriage of the hero's daughters ; the second with the shame of the Infantes de Carri6n, and the proud an- nouncement that the kings of Spain are sprung from the Cid's loins.

In both the singer rises to the level of his subject, but his chief est gust is in the recital of some brilliant deed of arms.

Three hundred lances down they come, their pennons flickering white; Down go three hundred Moors to earth, a man to every blowj And, when they wheel, three hundred more, as charging back they go.

That he knew the French models is evident from his skilful conveyance of the bear episode in Ider to his own pages, where the Cid encoun- ters the beast as a lion.

But the language shows no hint of French influence, and both thought and expression are profoundly national. The poet's name is irrecover- able, but the internal evidence points strongly to the conclusion that he came from the neighbourhood of Medina Cell.

Against this is the topographical minuteness with which the poet reports the sallies of the Cid in the districts of Castej6n and Alcocer ; his marked ignorance of the country round Zaragoza and Valencia, his detailed description of the central episode — the outrage upon the Cid's daughters in the wood of Corpes, near Berlanga ; and the important fact that the four chief itineraries in the Poema are charged with minutiae from Molina to San Esteban de Gormaz, while they grow vague and more confused as they extend towards Burgos and Valencia.

PiHfU Perhaps the greatest testimony to the early poet's worth is to be found in this : that hTs conceplibri of his hero has outlived the true historic Cid, and has forced the child of his imagination upon the acceptance of mankind.

The composi- tion which bears this clumsy and inappropriate title is better named the Cantar de Rodrigo, and consists of 1 1 25 lines, preceded by a scrap of rugged prose.

Not till after digressions into other episodes, and irrelevant stories of Miro and Bernardo, Bishops of Palencia, pro- bably fellow-townsmen of the compiler, does the Cid appear.

He is no longer, as in the Poema, a popular hero, idealised from historic report ; he is a purely ima- ginary figure, incrusted with a mass of fables accumulated in course of time.

At the age of twelve he slays Gomez G6rmaz an almost impossible style, compounded of a patronymic and the name of a castle belonging to the Cid , is claimed by the dead man's daughter, weds her, vanquishes the Moors, and leads his King's — Fernando's — troops to the gates of Paris, defeating the Count of Savoy upon the road.

One legend is heaped upon another, and the poem, the end of which is lost, breaks off with the Pope's request for a year's truce, which Fernando, acting as ever upon the Cid's advice, mag- nanimously extends for twelve years.

It is hard to say whether the Cantar de Rodrigo as we have it is the production of a single composer, or whether it is a patchwork by dijfferent hands, arranged from earlier poems, and eked out by prose stories and by oral tradi- tions.

The versification is that of the simple sixteen- syllabled line, each hemistich of which forms a typical romance line.

Much of the obscurity of language, which has been mistaken for archaism, is simply due to the defects of the manuscript ; and the evidence goes to show that the RodrigOy put together in the last decade of the twelfth century or the first of the thirteenth, was retouched in the fourteenth by Spanish juglares humili- ated by the recent French invasions.

The nameless Spanish arranger of the thirteenth century probably a native of Arag6n gives the story of Apollonius' adventures with force and clearness, anticipating in the character of Tarsiana the type of Preciosa, the heroine of Cervantes' Gitanilla and of Weber's opera.

Unfortunately the closing tags of moralisings on the vanity of life destroy the effect which the writer has produced by his free translation.

His text is suffused with Provengalisms, and his mono- rhymed quatrains of fourteen syllables are evidence of French or Provencal origin.

This metrical novelty, extending over more than six hundred stanzas, is pro- perly regarded by the author as his chief distinction, and he implores God and the Virgin to guide him in the exercise of the new mastery nueva maestrid.

It is fair to add that his experiment has the interest of novelty, that it succeeded beyond measure in its time, and that its monotonous vogue endured for some two hundred years.

To the same period belongs the Vida de Santa Maria jEgipciaquay the earliest Castilian example of verses of nine syllables.

The Spanish version follows the French lead with almost pedantic exactitude ; but the metre, new and well suited to the common ear, is handled with an easy grace re- markable in a first effort.

As happens with other works of this time, the title of the short Libre dels Tres Reyes dorient is misleading. Like its predecessor, this legend is given in nine-syllabled verse, and is undoubtedly borrowed from a French or Provengal source not yet discovered, h In the Disputa del Alma y el Cuerpo Argument be- 1 twixt Body and Soul , a subject which passes into!

Thus it is sought to reproduce the music of the model, an Anglo-Norman poem, written in rhymed couplets of six syllables, and wrongly attributed to Walter Map.

Composed in verses of nine syllables, the poem deals with the meeting of two lovers, their colloquy, interchanges, and separation.

Both pieces, discovered within the last seventeen years by M. Morel-Fatio, are the productions of a single mind.

Whoever the author may have been — and the internal evidence tends to show that he was a clerk familiar with French, Provengal, Italian, or Portuguese exemplars — he shines by virtue of qualities which are akin to genius.

Here was a poet who recognised that in literature — the least moral of the arts — the end justifies the means ; hence he transformed the material which he borrowed, made it his own possession, and conveyed into Castile a new method adapted to her needs.

But time and language were not yet ripe, and the Spanish lyric flourished solely in Galicia : it was not to be trans- planted at a first attempt.

A few details are known of him. He was certainly a deacon in , and his name occurs in documents between and His copiousness runs to some thirteen thousand lines, including, besides the works already named, the Sacrificio de la Misa Sacrifice of the Mass , the Martirio de San Lorenzo Martyrdom of St.

In most editions of Berceo there is appended to his verses a poem in his praise, attributed to an unknown writer of the fourteenth century.

This poem is, in fact, conjectured to be an invention of TomAs Antonio Sdnchez, the earliest editor of Berceo's complete works The chances are that Berceo and his writings had passed out of remembrance within two hundred years of his death, and he was evidently unknown to Santillana in the fifteenth century.

He sings in the vernacular, he declares, being too unlearned in the Latin ; but he has his little pretensions. Berceo uses the rhythm with success, and if his results are not splendid, it was not because he lacked perseverance.

On the contrary, his industry was only too formidable. Beside Dante's achievement, as Puymaigre notes, the paraphrases of Berceo in the Sacrificio de la Misa stanzas seem thin and pale ; but the comparison is unfair to the earlier Castiljian singer, who died in his obscure hamlet without the advantage of Dante's splendid BERCEO 59 r literary tradition.

Berceo is hampered by his lack of imagination, by the poverty of his conditions, by the absence of models, by the narrow circle of his sub- jects, and by the pious scruples which hindered him from arabesquing the original design.

Yet he pos- sesses the gifts of simplicity and of unction, and amid his long digressions into prosy theological commonplace there are flashes of m ystic insp iration unmatched by any other poet of his country and his time.

Even when his versification, clear but hard, is at its worst, he accomplishes the end which he desires by popular- ising the pious legends which were dear to him.

He was not — never could have been — a great poet. But in his own way he was, if not an inventor, the chief of a school, and the necessary predecessor of such devout authors as Luis de Leon and St.

The rocks where he reposed, in meditation still. The solitary shades through which he roved at will: His presence all that place with sanctity did fill!

Certain it is that Gautier's source, the Soissons manu- script, was known to Alfonso the Learned, who men- tions it in the sixty-first of his Galician songs as " a book full of miracles " : — " En Seixons.

But since Alfonso, a middle-aged man when Berceo died, knew the Soissons collection, it seems possible that Berceo also handled it.

A close examination of his text con- verts the bare possibility into something approaching certainty. Of Berceo's twenty-five Marian legends, eighteen are given by Gautier de Coinci, whose total reaches fifty-five.

This is not by itself final, for both writers might have selected them from a common source. Yet there are convincing proofs of imitation in the coincidences of thought and expression which are apparent in Gautier and Berceo.

These are too nume- rous to be accidental ; and still more weight must be given to the fact that in several cases where Gautier BERCEO 6 1 invents a detail of his own wit, Berceo reproduces it.

Taken in conjunction with his known habit of strict adherence to his text, it follows that Berceo took Gautier for his guide.

He did what all the world was doing in borrowing from the French, and in the Virgin's Lament he has the candour to confess the northern supremacy.

Still, it would be wrong to think that Berceo con- tents himself with mere servile reproduction, or that he trespasses in the manner of a vulgar plagiary.

Seven of his legends he seeks elsewhere than in Gautier, and he takes it upon himself to condense his prede- cessor's diffuse narration.

Thus, where Gautier needs lines to tell the legend of St. Ildefonsus, or to give the miracle of Theophilus, Berceo confines him- self to and to lines.

Gautier will spare you no detail ; he will have you know the why, the when, the how, the paltriest circumstance of his pious story. Beside him Berceo shines by his power of selection, by his finer instinct for the essential, by his relative sobriety of tone, by his realistic eye, by his variety of resource in pure Castilian expression, by his richer melody, and by the fleeter movement of his action.

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